constitution of china

. All types of discrimination or oppression with any nationality and acts, which undermine the unity of the nationalities are prohibited. The People’s Republic of China shall establish a Supreme People’s Court and local people’s courts at all levels, military courts and other special people’s courts. People’s Courts and People’s Procuratorates. The state shall strengthen economic legislation and improve macro regulation. Feature # 8. The statements and votes of National People’s Congress deputies at meetings of the National People’s Congress shall not be subject to legal liability. Collective economic organizations shall, on the condition that they abide by relevant laws, have the autonomy to independently conduct economic activities. The president and the vice president of the People’s Republic of China shall have the same term of office as that of the National People’s Congress. President (): Xi Jinping The Supreme People’s Court shall oversee the adjudicatory work of local people’s courts at all levels and of special people’s courts; people’s courts at higher levels shall oversee the adjudicatory work of those at lower levels. Article 3 Section 4  The constitution of China declares that all nationalities are equal which a major characteristic of chines constitution is. The National Commission of Supervision shall be responsible to the National People’s Congress and the National People’s Congress Standing Committee. Article 133 The Supreme People’s Court shall be responsible to the National People’s Congress and the National People’s Congress Standing Committee. This page was last edited on 28 December 2020, at 08:09. China pursues an independent foreign policy, observes the five principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual nonaggression, mutual noninterference in internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and peaceful coexistence, keeps to a path of peaceful development, follows a mutually beneficial strategy of opening up, works to develop diplomatic relations and economic and cultural exchanges with other countries, and promotes the building of a human community with a shared future. The Constitution also guarantees the freedom of religious worship as well as the "freedom not to believe in any religion" and affirms that "religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign domination. The constitution stipulates that the National People's Congress (NPC) and its Standing Committee have the power to review whether laws or activities violate the constitution. Organizations that have elected deputies shall have the power to remove them from office in accordance with procedures prescribed by law. We the Chinese people of all ethnic groups will continue, under the leadership of the Communist Party of China and, the guidance of Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong Thought, Deng Xiaoping Theory, the Theory of Three Represents, , the Scientific Outlook on Development and Xi Jinping Thought on Socialism with Chinese Characteristics for a New Era, to uphold the people’s democratic dictatorship, stay on the socialist road, carry out reform and opening up, steadily improve the socialist institutions, develop the socialist market economy and socialist democracy, improve socialist rule of law, apply the new development, self-reliance to modernize step by step the country’s industry, agriculture, national defense, and science and technology and promote coordinated material, political, cultural-ethical, social and ecological advancement, in order to build China into, a great modern socialist country that is prosperous, strong, democratic, culturally advanced, harmonious and beautiful, and realize the great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, The cause of building socialism must rely on workers, peasants and intellectuals and unite all forces that can be united. Local people’s congresses at and above the county level shall establish standing committees. protect the right of citizens to own and inherit private property in accordance with the provisions of law. Laws and other proposals shall be adopted by a majority vote of the National People’s Congress deputies. Women in the People’s Republic of China shall enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres of life: political, economic, cultural, social and familial. The election of deputies to the next National People’s Congress must be completed within one year of said extraordinary circumstances coming to an end. The organs through which the people exercise state power are the National People’s Congress and the local people’s congresses at all levels. The National People’s Congress. Article 18 The People’s Republic of China shall permit foreign enterprises, other economic organizations and individuals, to invest in China and to enter into various forms of economic cooperation with Chinese enterprises or other economic organizations in accordance with the provisions of law of the People’s Republic of China. Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall have, The state shall, in various ways, create employment opportunities, strengthen worker protections, improve working conditions and, based on the development of production, increase remuneration for work and, Work is an honorable duty for every citizen who is able to work. Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall have the obligation to safeguard national unity and the solidarity of all the country’s ethnic groups. Deputies to the people’s congresses of provinces, cities directly under central government jurisdiction and cities divided into districts shall be subject to oversight by the organizations that elected them; deputies to the people’s congresses of counties, cities not divided into districts, municipal districts, townships, ethnic townships and towns shall be subject to oversight by their constituencies. All areas inhabited by ethnic minorities shall practice regional autonomy, establish autonomous organs, and exercise the power to self-govern. Article 139 Citizens of all ethnic groups shall have the right to use their own ethnic group’s spoken and written languages in court proceedings. The systems instituted in special administrative regions shall, in light of specific circumstances, be prescribed by laws enacted by the National People’s Congress. The unlawful search of or unlawful intrusion into a citizen’s home is prohibited. The vice president of the People’s Republic of China shall assist the president in his or her work. Article 81 The president of the People’s Republic of China engages in affairs of state and receives foreign diplomatic envoys on behalf of the People’s Republic of China and, pursuant to decisions of the National People’s Congress Standing Committee, appoints or recalls plenipotentiary representatives abroad and ratifies or abrogates treaties and important agreements concluded with foreign countries. Article 105 Local people’s governments at all levels are the executive organs of the local state organs of power at their respective levels; they are the local state administrative organs at their respective levels. of the socialist economic system of the People’s Republic of China is socialist public ownership of the means of production, that is, ownership by the. Article 75 The statements and votes of National People’s Congress deputies at meetings of the National People’s Congress shall not be subject to legal liability. There are clear admonitions against familiar Chinese practices that the reformers have labelled abuses, such as concentrating power in the hands of a few leaders and permitting lifelong tenure in leadership positions. Duty to honor the motherland Local people’s governments at and above the county level shall establish audit offices. The number of deputies to the National People’s Congress and the procedures for their election shall be prescribed by law. The State Council of the People’s Republic of China, namely, the Central People’s Government, is the executive organ of the highest state organ of power; it is the highest state administrative organ. Article 69 The National People’s Congress Standing Committee shall be responsible to the National People’s Congress and shall report to the Congress on its work. Taiwan is part of the sacred territory of the People’s Republic of China. All citizens of the People’s Republic of China are equal before the law. Marriage, families, mothers and children shall be protected by the state. The Chinese and the English texts were retrieved on November 28, 2016, from the website of the State Council of the People's Republic of China.. Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (Adopted at the Fifth Session of the Fifth National People’s Congress and promulgated for implementation by the Announcement of the National People’s Congress on December 4, 1982 [28][29], The Open Constitution Initiative was an organization consisting of lawyers and academics in the People's Republic of China that advocated the rule of law and greater constitutional protections. After the founding of the People’s Republic of China, our country gradually achieved the transition from a new democratic society to a socialist society. Members of the expanded rural collectives have the right "to farm private plots, engage in household sideline production, and raise privately owned livestock." On the other hand, the constitution strongly oppose the western system of separation of powers by executive, legislature and judicial. & Industry for National Defense, CPC Central Commission for Discipline Inspection, Central Leading Group for Inspection Work, Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Central Military Commission, Independent Commission Against Corruption (Hong Kong), Judicial Administrative Organs People's Police, Office for Safeguarding National Security of the CPG in the HKSAR, Central Leading Group for Propaganda and Ideology, Central Guidance Commission on Building Spiritual Civilization, Central Publicity (Propaganda) Department, National Press and Publication Administration, National Radio and Television Administration, Central Leading Group on Hong Kong and Macau Affairs, Association for Relations Across the Taiwan Straits, International Development Cooperation Agency, International Military Cooperation Office, State Administration of Foreign Experts Affairs, National People's Congress Constitution and Law Committee, Constitutional history of the People's Republic of China, 13th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, 14th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, 15th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China, Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Constitution of the Chinese Communist Party, "Constitution of the People's Republic of China", "China's Still Having a Hard Time Obeying Its Own Constitution", "On First Annual Constitution Day, China's Most Censored Word Was 'Constitution, "Using Law for a Righteous Purpose: The Sun Zhigang Incident and Evolving Forms of Citizen Action in the People's Republic of China", "Constitution of the People's Republic of China (2018 Amendment)", "China's New "Xi Jinping Constitution": The Road to Totalitarianism", "CONSTITUTION OF THE PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA", "城乡居民选举首次实现同票同权(Chinese)", "Timeline: Major amendments to CPC Constitution", "Xi Jinping cleared to stay on as China's president with just 2 dissenters among 2,964 votes", "China's national legislature adopts constitutional amendment", "China's Constitutional Amendments Are All About The Party, Not The President", "China's Constitution to Include Xi Jinping Thought", "Translation: 2018 Amendment to the P.R.C. National People’s Congress and the local people’s congresses at all levels. Local People’s Congresses at All levels and Section 1 The Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference is a broadly representative organization of the united front, and has played a significant historical role. Local people’s governments at all levels nationwide are state administrative organs under the unified leadership of the State Council; they shall all be subordinate to the State Council. s prescribed by the Constitution and the law. The system of multiparty cooperation and political consultation under the leadership of the Communist Party of China will continue and develop long into the future. Rural economic cooperatives, producer, supply and marketing, credit and consumer cooperatives, Working people who belong to rural collective economic organizations shall have the right, within the s. cropland and hillsides allotted to them for their private use, engage in household sideline production, and raise privately owned livestock. The Supreme People’s Procuratorate is the highest procuratorial organ. Prior to the amendment, the CCP and its leadership were only mentioned in the preamble. for the work, livelihood and education of citizens who are blind, deaf, mute or have other disabilities. to raise the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation. Article 121 In performing their duties, autonomous organs of ethnic autonomous areas shall, in accordance with the autonomous regulations of that ethnic autonomous area, use the spoken and written language or languages commonly used in that area. Article 54 Citizens of the People’s Republic of China shall have the obligation to safeguard the security, honor and interests of the motherland; they must not behave in any way that endangers the motherland’s security, honor or interests. This Constitution affirms the achievements of the struggles of the Chinese people of all nationalities and defines the basic system and basic tasks of the state in legal form; it is the fundamental law of the state and has supreme legal authority. Land in rural and suburban areas is owned by collectives except for that which belongs to the state as prescribed by law; housing sites and cropland and. Deputies to the National People’s Congress should maintain close contact with the organizations and people that elected them, listen to and convey the opinions and demands of the people, and work hard to serve them. Local people’s congresses at and above the county level shall elect, and have the power to remove from office, members of their standing committees. The constitution is the fundamental law of the state and sets out the general guidelines for administering state affairs. Membership Article 1: Any forward-thinking Chinese worker, farmer, member of the armed forces, intellectual, or person from any other social strata who has reached the age of eighteen and who accepts the Partys program and Constitution and is willing to join and work actively in one of the Partys organizations, carry out the Partys resolutions, and pay regular membership dues may apply for membership to the Communist Party of China. Local people’s congresses at all levels are local state organs of power. Article 2 The sovereignty of the Republic of China shall reside in the whole body of citizens. It is prohibited to use any means to insult, libel or falsely accuse citizens. The Chinese text was retrieved from the China.com.cn Web site on May 31, 2013. [14], Xi Jinping Thought was adopted in 2017. The National Commission of Supervision of the People’s Republic of China is the highest supervisory organ. Article 103 The standing committees of local people’s congresses at and above the county level shall be composed of a chairperson, vice chairpersons and members; they shall be responsible to the people’s congresses at their respective levels and shall report to them on their work. [15], Premier Wen Jiabao said that "These amendments of the Chinese constitution are of great importance to the development of China. Autonomous organs of ethnic autonomous areas shall autonomously manage the educational, scientific, cultural, health and sports undertakings of their areas, protect and restore the cultural heritage of their ethnic groups, and promote the development and a thriving of ethnic cultures. People’s Republic of China shall be delineated as follows: provinces, autonomous regions and cities directly under central government jurisdiction; autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties and cities; and, Cities directly under central government jurisdiction and other large cities, districts and counties. The Central Military Commission shall have the same term of office as that of the National People’s Congress. The National People’s Congress shall exercise the following functions and powers: (3) enacting and amending criminal, civil, state institution. Article 66 Each National People’s Congress Standing Committee shall have the same term of office as that of the National People’s Congress; it shall exercise its functions and powers until a new Standing Committee is elected by the next National People’s Congress. Both husband and wife shall have the obligation to practice family planning. 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